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definição - INSURGENCY IN THE MAGHREB 2002 PRESENT

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Insurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present)

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Islamic insurgency in the Maghreb
Part of the War on Terrorism

States of Maghreb and Sahel affected by the insurgency
Date2002 – ongoing
LocationAlgeria, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger
StatusOngoing
Belligerents
Algeria
Morocco
Mali
Mauritania[1]Supported by:
 European Union
 France
 Spain[2]
Al-Qaeda Organization in the Islamic Maghreb
(2002-2007 under the name Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat)
Free Salafist Group (GSL)

Morroco :Groupe marocain de la prédication et du combat[3]
Front islamique marocain[4]

Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group (MICG)

Tunisia :Groupe islamique combattant tunisien (GMPC)
El Jabha El Islamiya Ettounsia

Commanders
Amari Saifi #
Nabil Sahraoui
Abou Mossaab Abdelouadoud
Strength
250,000AQOIM : 300-800 fighters
Casualties and losses
6,000+ dead on both sides[citation needed]

The Maghreb (more specifically, Algeria, Mauritania and Morocco) has been the subject of an insurgency since 2002 waged by the neo-Khawarij Islamist militia, Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat, or, GSPC. The GSPC allied itself with the Al-Qaeda Organization in the Islamic Maghreb against the Algerian government.

This alliance created a division within the GSPC and led to the creation of the Free Salafist Group (GSL) another militant group opposing the Algerian government and Western interests. The conflict is a continuation of the Algerian Civil War that ended in 2002, and has since spread to other neighboring countries.


Contents

Timeline

End of the Algerian civil war and initial militant activities

With the Groupe Islamique Armé's decline, the GSPC was left as the most active rebel group, with about 300 fighters in 2003.[5] It continued a campaign of assassinations of police and army personnel in its area, and also managed to expand into the Sahara, where its southern division, led by Amari Saifi (nicknamed "Abderrezak el-Para", the "paratrooper"), kidnapped a number of German tourists in 2003, before being forced to flee to sparsely populated areas of Mali, and later Niger and Chad, where he was captured.

Some believe that El Para actually works for the Algerian government. By late 2003, the group's founder had been supplanted by the even more radical Nabil Sahraoui, who announced his open support for al-Qaeda, thus strengthening government ties between the U.S. and Algeria. He was reportedly killed shortly afterwards, and was succeeded by Abu Musab Abdel Wadoud in 2004.[6]

The GSPC has declared its intention to attack Algerian, French, and American targets. It has been designated as a Foreign Terrorist Organization by the U.S. Department of State, and similarly classed as a terrorist organization by the European Union.

Yet certain observers have consistently argued that the claims about terrorist threats in the Sahara and an alliance between these groups and Al-Qaida are exaggerated, that certain key events were fabricated, and that much of the hype is the result of a campaign of deception and disinformation led by the Algerian government, and perpetuated by the media.[7]

2002

  • On May 5, 2002, 15 government soldiers are killed in an ambush near Tizi Ouzou, in the Kabylie region of northern Algeria. About 50 members of the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) were blamed for the assault.[8]
  • On June 23, 2002, militants killed 6 civilians in an attack on youths playing football near a bus station in Zeralda, near Algier.[9]
  • On July 17, 2002, militants killed 7 civilians in Ouled Allal, Bouira Province. Bringing the death toll of the previous three days to 22.[10]
  • On September 13, 2002, militants killed 11 civilians on a road in northern Algeria, Ain Defla Province. The previous month, according to a toll compiled from press reports and official accounts, an estimated 140 people were killed in extremist violence, bringing to 1,070 the number of people who had been killed since the beginning of the year.[11]
  • On September 19, 2002, 15 people are reported to have been arrested in Kabylie under suspicion of providing money and logistical help to the GSPC[12]
  • On October 2, 2002, militants killed 13 civilians in a remote village in western Algeria, in Ain Defla Province.[13]

2003

  • On January 6, 2003, militants ambushed a military convoy in north-east Algeria killing 43 soldiers and wounding 19 others. Also militants attacked families near the capital, Algiers, killing 13 people.[14]
  • Between 22 February and 24 March 2003, the Free Salafist Group or GSL, a splinter group of the GSPC led by Amari Saïfi (Abderrazak “El Para”), allegedly captures 32 European tourists in southern Algeria. On 13 May 2003, seventeen hostages are released and 2 militants are killed in a gun battle (not sure - the release also could have been a fake) in the Algerian desert. The remaining fighters, with fifteen hostages, flee to northern Mali. After receiving a purported €5 million ransom paid by the German government,[15] the GSL/GSPC releases the fourteen remaining hostages on 19 August 2003.[16] The fifteenth hostage, a German, died of heat exhaustion.[17]
  • In September 2003, Nabil Sahraoui was reported to have replaced Hassan Hattab as leader of the GSPC but other media reports have denied that any change has taken place.[18]
  • On November 27, 2003, in Messad, Djelfa Province, Algeria, a well-known poet and member of the extended Royal Saudi family was killed and four others were injured in an apparent terrorist attack, according to press reports.[19]

2004

  • On February 7, 2004, the Algerian Army attacks the band of militants in northern Mali, from where they are chased eastward across northern Niger and into Chad.[16]
  • On March 9, 2004, members of the GSL/GSPC fight a gun battle with troops from Niger and Chad, supported by U.S. Special Forces, just inside Chad. 43 Salafi fighters from several West and North African countries are killed. The band's leader and the GSPC's overall number two, Amari Saïfi, escapes but is later captured by a Chadian rebel group, Movement for Democracy and Justice in Chad (Mouvement pour la démocratie et la justice au Tchad or MDJT).[16]
  • On May 2, 2004, it was reported that in the previous two days 7 members of the security forces, 6 civilians and 2 militants were killed in several locations: near Algier, and in the provinces of Medea, Bouira and Relizane.[20]
  • On May 18, 2004, two bombs exploded killing two soldiers and wounding 13 people, including four soldiers, in Setif in eastern Algeria.[21]
  • On June 2, 2004, insurgents ambushed an Algerian military convoy in Béjaïa in eastern Algeria, killing 10 soldiers and wounding 45 others.[22]
  • On June 20, 2004, Nabil Sahraoui is reported killed in gun battles with Algerian Army, along with many other high-level members of the group.[23]
  • On June 21, 2004, a car bomb injures 11 people and damages the main electricity plant in the capital Algiers. The GSPC claims responsibility.[24]
  • On June 28, 2004, the army killed three Islamic extremists in a raid near the capital, Algiers.[25]
  • On September 20, 2004, militants killed 4 people at a roadblock they set up near Kalous in Bouira Province.[26]
  • On September 29, 2004, militants attacked a civil defense post near the city of Ain Defla, killing 6 members of the civil defense force.[27]
  • In Autumn 2004, Abu Musab Abdel Wadoud (aka Abdel Malik Daroqedel, Abdelmalik Dourkdal or Abou Mossaab Abdelouadoud) succeeds Nabil Sahraoui as head of the GSPC.[28]
  • On October 22, 2004, militants attacked a vehicle near Medea carrying fans to a football match in the capital Algiers killing 16 people.[29]
  • At the end of October 2004, Amari Saïfi ("El Para") is handed over to the Libyan government, which sent him to be tried in Algeria.[16]

2005

  • On April 9, 2005, militants killed 14 people at a fake roadblock near Algier. In addition another 36 people, including 15 security force members have been killed since the start of March.[30]
  • On May 15, 2005, insurgents ambushed an army convoy in the region of Khenchela killing 12 soldiers.[31]
  • On June 6, 2005, days before American soldiers arrive in the Sahel region for a military exercise named "Flintlock 2005", 15 Mauritanian soldiers are killed in an attack on the Lemgheity army base on the north-eastern border with Algeria and Mali. The Mauretanian authorities blame the GSPC, pointing to a statement on a GSPC-affiliated website as evidence. Others doubt the GSPC is responsible and suspect involvement of the Algerian security forces. Mauretanian journalists say that the report has not been independently verified and that they have been denied access to the wounded in hospital.[32]
  • On June 9, 2005, an explosive device kills 13 local government guards in a truck in Algeria's M'sila region southeast of Algiers.[33]
  • On June 13, 2005, an explosive device kills 3 soldiers and 2 civilians west of Tipaza.[34]
  • On June 18, 2005, an explosive device killed a policeman during a police raid in El-Djer.[35]
  • On June 23, 2005, an explosive device kills 1 policeman on the road linking Azzefoune and Aghrib in the province of Tizi Ouzou.[36]
  • The GSPC deputy head Amari Saïfi is imprisoned for life on 25 June 2005.[37]
  • On July 18, 2005, Islamist militants killed five policemen in an ambush in Ain Defla in western Algeria.[38]
  • In a September 2005 interview, Abu Musab Abdel Wadoud condemns the Algerian government's "peace and reconciliation agreement". He claims to have cut ties with the GSPC's founder, Hassan Hattab who supports the agreement and calls on the GSPC to lay down its arms.[28][39]
  • On September 25, 2005 militants killed 5 members of the security forces. Three days before 7 soldiers and 3 civilians were killed in two other attacks. Since the beginning of the month another 16 soldiers, 12 civilians and 1 policeman were killed. The attacks took place in Boumerdes Province and close to Saida .[40][41]
  • On November 17, 2005, three Algerian nationals are arrested in Naples, Italy on suspicion of planning a terrorist attack. They are said to have had contacts with Salafist groups in Algeria, notably the GSPC.[42]

2006

  • On February 1, 2006, the Algerian daily Liberté reports that spiritual leader Ahmed Abou al-Baraa (real name Ahmed Zarabib) has been killed by Algerian government forces in the mountains near Toudja on January 17.[43]
  • On March 30, 2006, Hassan Hattab, a founder of the group, is reported to have called on its remaining members to accept an amnesty offered by the Algerian government.[44]
  • On April 7, 2006, insurgents ambushed a government convoy in the desert region of Ghardaïa in Algeria carrying customs agents killing 13 people.[45]
  • On April 26, 2006, a suicide bomber attacked the base of the Multinational Forces and Observers at al-Jura wounding two members of the force.[46]
  • On June 21, 2006, the Algerian army killed 10 Islamists in Ghzerwal, near Boumerdes.
  • On June 26, 2006, the Algerian army killed 19 Islamists in the eastern region of Khenchela, bring the number of people killed since the start of the latest unrest in Algeria to 53, including 36 suspected Islamists. Among the dead were also 7 soldiers killed on June 21 and 5 civilians killed on June 20.[47]
  • On July 20, 2006, insurgents killed 4 government municipal guards near Ain Defla. The attack followed a similar one on July 12 when 5 guards were killed near Tipaza.[48]
  • On August 29, 2006, insurgents attacked a checkpoint in El-Kseur in Béjaïa Province, killing 2 policemen and 1 civilian.[49]
  • On September 14, 2006, al-Qaeda announced it will will join the GSPC in their fight against France. They plan to attack France, the United States, and their allies.[50][51]
  • On September 2, 2006 in separate clashes 6 soldiers were killed in the regions of Béjaïa and Medea.[52]
  • In October, 2006 a series of truck bombs exploded in Algiers killing three and wounding 24.[53]
  • On November 3, 2006 15 militants ambushed an army patrol in the Ain Defla region killing 8 soldiers.[54]
  • On November 9, 2006 militants ambushed an army patrol in the Bouira region killing 7 soldiers and wounding 13.[54]
  • On November 28, 2006 10 militants were killed in clashes in remote mountainous regions and also a week before a military helicopter was shot down by the Islamists killing 3 soldiers and 2 local guards.[55]
  • In December 10, 2006 a bomb tore apart a bus carrying foreign oil workers in Algiers, killing two and wounding eight.[53]

2007

  • In January, 2007 Tunisia said it killed 12 GSPC militants while losing two security men. The militants allegedly planned to attack the U.S. and British embassies in Tunis.[56]
  • On January 5, 2007 insurgents killed 18 soldiers in an ambush in the region of Biskra.[57]
  • On January 21, 2007 a roadside bomb exploded under an army vehicle near Jijel in eastern Algeria killing one soldier and wounding another eight.[58]
  • On January 30, 2007 5 soldiers and 10 Islamists were killed in fighting in the eastern region of Batna.[59]
  • On February 13, 2007 seven bombs exploded at seven police stations in the Kabylia region killing 2 policemen and 4 civilians.[53]
  • On March 3, 2007 a bomb hits a convoy of Russian pipeline workers between the towns of Medea and Ain Defla, killing four Russians and three Algerians.[60]
  • On April 7, 2007 9 soldiers and 10 Islamists were killed in fighting in a wooded area in the Ain Defla Province.[61]
  • On April 11, 2007, a suicide attack at the entrance of the Ministry of Interior killed more than 24 people and wounded 300. The United Nations Security Council officially condemned this attack.[62]
  • On April 27, 2007 AQ-Maghreb acknowledged that their member Samir Saioud alias Musab Abu Abdullah had been killed 45 km east of Algiers, but denied the Algerian government's claim that he had been #2 in the organization.[63]
  • On May 11, 2007 in various incidents 6 Islamists, 1 soldier and 1 policeman were killed near Tizi Ouzou, Saida and Jijel.[64]
  • On May 13, 2007 a bomb exploded at a police checkpoint in Constantine, Algeria, killing one policeman and wounding two.[65]
  • On May 14, 2007 20 militants were killed in clashes near the capital.[66]
  • On July 11, 2007 a suicide truck bomber attacked a military barracks near Bouira, killing 10 soldiers and wounding 35.[67][68]
  • On September 3, 2007 during clashes in the Tebessa region five security forces members and a civilian were killed.[69]
  • On September 5, 2007 seven militants were killed when the army bombed a suspected militant hideout in the Tebessa region.[69]
  • On September 6, 2007 a bomber in Batna blew himself up among a crowd waiting to see the president Abdelaziz Bouteflika arrive on a scheduled visit to the town 430 km (270 miles) southeast of Algiers. At least 21 people including the attacker were killed. It was the first time a suicide attacker in Algeria has detonated a bomb strapped to his body, rather than using a car bomb.[70][71]
  • On September 8, 2007, at least 30 people were killed and 47 injured in a suicide car bomb attack on an Algerian naval barracks in the town of Dellys, 100 km (62 mi) east of Algiers. The blast was carried out by two attackers who killed themselves in the attack. At least three civilians were among the dead.[71][72]
  • On September 15, 2007 a bomb exploded in front of a police compound in Zemmouri, near Boumerdes, killing three people and wounding five others.[67]
  • On September 22, 2007 a suicide bomber wounded nine people, including two Frenchmen and an Italian, in an attack in Lakhdaria, in the Bouira Province.[68]
  • On October 9, 2007 in clashes in Kabylia three militants, including the GSPC deputy leader, were killed.[73]
  • On October 15, 2007 in fighting in the Tizi Ouzou province three militants were killed.[74]
  • On November 16, 2007, Algerian forces killed the treasurer of al-Qaeda in Algeria, Abdelhamid Sadaoui, also known as Abou el Haythem, near Tizi Ouzou.[73]
  • On December 11, 2007, two suicide truck bombers attacked U.N. offices in Algiers, killing 37 people and injuring 171. The United Nations Security Council officially condemned this attack.[75]
  • On December 25, 2007, 4 French tourists were killed by gunmen in Mauritania and a fifth seriously injured. Victims were all part of the same family. See 2007 French tourists killing in Mauritania

2008

  • On January 2, 2008, a suicide attack killed at least three people in the Algerian city of Naciria, east of Algiers, police say. They say the bomber detonated his car near a police station. At least seven people were also wounded in the attack.[76]
  • On February 1, 2008, unidentified gunmen opened fire on the Israeli embassy in the Mauritanian capital Nouakchott, causing several injuries, including a French national. Israel condemned the attack, calling it an "act of terrorism".[77]
  • Al Qaeda's wing in north Africa says it killed 20 Algerian soldiers and wounded 30 in clashes in its eastern stronghold, where the army has launched a campaign against the rebels. In an Internet statement posted on March 8, the group denied a newspaper report that 25 of its fighters had been killed and played down reports its leader had been surrounded.[78]
  • On June 6, 2008, roadside bomb killed six soldiers and wounded four in Cap Djenat. The bombing came a day after a suicide bomber targeted a military barracks in an eastern Algiers suburb but killed only himself.[79]
  • On June 8, 2008, two bombs in quick succession rocked a train station in Beni Amrane, about 60 miles east of Algiers. The first bomb killed a Frenchman working on a renovation project at the station along with his driver. The second bomb came about five minutes later hitting the first responders and killing eight soldiers and three firefighters.
  • On July 14, 2008, a leader of Al-Qaida in Algeria was killed in a security forces raid.
  • On August 19, 2008, a suicide car-bomber attacked a police academy in Les Issers as recruits lined up in front of the building, 43 people were killed, only one of them a policeman. This attack was officially condemned by the United Nations Security Council.[80]
  • On August 20, 2008, another two car-bombs attacked a hotel in Bouira killing 11 civilians one day after the car bomb attack in Les Issers.[81]
  • On September 15, 12 Mauritanians were captured and later beheaded in northern Mauritania.[82]

2009

  • January 22: Gunmen abduct a Swiss couple, a German woman, and a British man in Niger. In February, Al-Qaeda in the Maghreb claimed to have abducted the four tourists as well as Canadian diplomat Robert Fowler in December.[83] Fowler and three others were released in April while the British man, Edwin Dyer, was executed in June.[84]
  • February 22: Militants attack a gas installation at the Ziama Mansouriah commune in the coastal province of Jijel, killing nine security guards in the deadliest strike since August.[85]
  • June 17: 18 gendarmerie troops and a civilian were killed in an attack on a military convoy near Bordj Bou Arreridj, about 125 miles southeast of Algiers.Local sources said that the soldiers were returning after escorting to base a group of Chinese workers building the future motorway intended to cross the whole of the north African country from east to west.
  • July 30: At least 14 Algerian security guards were killed in an ambush by alleged Islamic fighters.[86]
  • Nov. 26: Frenchman Pierre Camatte was kidnapped in Ménaka, Mali by al-Qaeda.[87]
  • Nov. 29: Spanish aid workers Roque Pascual, Albert Vilalta, and Alicia Gamez were kidnapped on a coastal road in Mauritania.[87]
  • Dec. 19: An Italian and his wife from Burkina Faso were kidnapped in eastern Mauritania.[88]
  • Dec. 28: Three Saudi tourists are killed and three others injured in an attack near Djambala, Niger.[89]

See also

References

  1. ^ BBC NEWS | Africa | Al-Qaeda 'behind' Mauritania raid
  2. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20090721/wl_africa_afp/malispainterrorismaid
  3. ^ http://www.cf2r.org/fr/notes-actualite/l-infiltration-al-qaeda-en-afrique.php
  4. ^ http://www.cf2r.org/fr/notes-actualite/l-infiltration-al-qaeda-en-afrique.php
  5. ^ Profile: Algeria's Salafist group, BBC News, Wednesday 14 May 2003
  6. ^ New chief for Algeria's Islamists, Arezki Himeur, BBC News, Tuesday, 7 September 2004.
  7. ^ see especially the numerous writings by Jeremy Keenan, such as http://www.fpif.org/fpiftxt/3544 or "Waging War on Terror: the Implications of America's 'New Imperialism' for Saharan Peoples, Journal of North African Studies vol. 10, no. 3 (September-December 2005), p619-648
  8. ^ Algerian ambush leaves 15 dead, BBC News, 6 May 2002
  9. ^ 6 killed near Algerian capital: News24: Archive: News24
  10. ^ Algerian rebels kill 7: News24: Archive: News24
  11. ^ 11 killed in attack in Algeria: News24: Archive: News24
  12. ^ Algerian army kills 24 guerrillas, BBC News, 19 September 2002
  13. ^ Algerian militants massacre: News24: Archive: News24
  14. ^ Algerian Islamists kill 56 in raids on army and families - Africa, World - The Independent
  15. ^ Newspaper: Berlin paid ransom to free hostages, Deutsche Welle 6 August 2004
  16. ^ a b c d Islamist Terrorism in the Sahel: Fact or Fiction? - International Crisis Group Report, 31 March 2005
  17. ^ Craig Whitlock (2006-10-28). "Taking Terror Fight to N. Africa Leads U.S. to Unlikely Alliances". The Washington Post: p. A01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/10/27/AR2006102701713.html. Retrieved 2006-10-28. 
  18. ^ Algerian group backs al-Qaeda, BBC News, 23 October 2003
  19. ^ Appendix A - Chronology of Significant Terrorist Incidents, 2003 - Revised
  20. ^ 15 die in Algerian violence: Africa: News: News24
  21. ^ Two soldiers killed in Algeria violence. | UPI NewsTrack (May, 2004)
  22. ^ USATODAY.com - 10 Algerian soldiers killed in deadliest attack this year
  23. ^ Algerian terror leader killed The Australian, 20 June 2004
  24. ^ Algiers blast 'was car bombing', BBC News, 7 July 2004
  25. ^ 3 Algerian extremists killed: Africa: News: News24
  26. ^ Four killed at fake roadblock: Africa: News: News24
  27. ^ Algeria: Rebels kill 6: Africa: News: News24
  28. ^ a b Interview with Abu Musab Abdel Wadoud, commander of the GSPC, 26 September 2005 (globalterroralert.com website) (pdf)
  29. ^ 16 Algerians killed in attack: Africa: News: News24
  30. ^ Algerian ambush toll hits 14: Africa: News: News24
  31. ^ Islamist ambush kills 12 troops: Africa: News: News24
  32. ^ BBC Documentary about increased US military focus on the Sahara region. August 2005.
  33. ^ Algeria militants kill 13 guards, BBC News, 9 June 2006
  34. ^ MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base
  35. ^ MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base
  36. ^ MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base
  37. ^ Algerian rebel gets life sentence, BBC News, 25 June 2005
  38. ^ 'Islamist militants' kill cops: Africa: News: News24
  39. ^ Interview with the Former Leader of the Salafist Group for Call and Combat, Ash-Sharq al-Awsat, 17 October 2005
  40. ^ Militants kill 5 in Algeria : Africa: News: News24
  41. ^ 'Islamic militants' kill four: Africa: News: News24
  42. ^ Italy holds three terror suspects, BBC News 17 November 2005
  43. ^ Salafist leader killed in Algeria Al-Jazeerah, 2 February 2006
  44. ^ Top Algerian Islamist slams Qaeda group, urges peace, Reuters, 30 March 2006
  45. ^ World Tribune.com - Salafists are back: Kill 13 in Algeria
  46. ^ MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base
  47. ^ 19 Islamists killed in Algeria: Africa: News: News24
  48. ^ Algerian rebels kill 4 in ambush: Africa: News: News24
  49. ^ MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base
  50. ^ c
  51. ^ Al-Qaeda's Far-Reaching New Partner: Salafist Group Finds Limited Appeal in Its Native Algeria, Washington Post, October 5, 2006
  52. ^ Six soldiers killed in Algeria: Africa: News: News24
  53. ^ a b c BBC NEWS | Africa | Bomb attacks hit Algerian police
  54. ^ a b FOXNews.com - Ambush Kills 7 Soldiers in Algeria
  55. ^ ABC News: ABC News
  56. ^ Tunisia is feared to be a new base for Islamists, International Herald Tribune, February 20, 2007]
  57. ^ 18 killed in Algeria: Africa: News: News24
  58. ^ Report: 1 soldier killed, 8 wounded in roadside bomb attack in eastern Algeria - International Herald Tribune
  59. ^ BBC NEWS | Africa | Islamists battle Algeria's army
  60. ^ MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base
  61. ^ India eNews - Al-Qaeda fighters kill nine soldiers in Algeria
  62. ^ United Nations Security Council Verbatim Report meeting 5659 on 12 April 2007 (retrieved 2008-08-21)
  63. ^ Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb clarifies..., SITE, 27 April 2007
  64. ^ Six suspected Islamist terrorists killed in Algeria
  65. ^ MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base
  66. ^ More than 20 Algerian militants killed
  67. ^ a b BBC NEWS | Africa | Soldiers killed in Algerian bomb
  68. ^ a b France on Al-Qaeda alert after Algeria attack | Herald Sun
  69. ^ a b Algeria: 7 militants killed - Boston.com
  70. ^ Al Jazeera English - News - Many Dead In Algeria Blast
  71. ^ a b Qaeda N. Africa wing claims Algeria attacks: Jazeera | International | Reuters
  72. ^ Car bomb at barracks in Algeria kills at least 28 - Israel News, Ynetnews
  73. ^ a b BBC NEWS | Africa | 'Top Islamist killed' in Algeria
  74. ^ Kuna site|Story page|Algerian army foils Qaeda attack east of Algiers ...10/14/2007
  75. ^ United Nations Security Council Verbatim Report meeting 5798 on 11 December 2007 (retrieved 2008-08-21)
  76. ^ BBC NEWS | Africa | Algerian suicide bomb kills four
  77. ^ Militants attack Israeli embassy in Mauritania
  78. ^ Qaeda in north Africa says kills 20 Algeria troops - International Herald Tribune
  79. ^ Official: Roadside bomb kills 6 Algerian soldiers
  80. ^ United Nations Security Council Verbatim Report meeting 5962 on 19 August 2008 (retrieved 2008-08-21)
  81. ^ Double car bombing in Algeria kills 11.
  82. ^ http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/09/22/2370254.htm?section=justin
  83. ^ http://www.csmonitor.com/2009/0219/p99s01-duts.html
  84. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/8080447.stm
  85. ^ http://af.reuters.com/article/topNews/idAFJOE51M0EE20090223
  86. ^ http://www.france24.com/en/20090730-least-14-soldiers-killed-militants-attack-tipaza-terrorism-ambush-algeria-africa
  87. ^ a b Contacts to free Europeans held by Al-Qaeda in Africa
  88. ^ Italian, wife missing in eastern Mauritania
  89. ^ 3 Suspects Detained in Killing of 3 Saudis in Niger

 

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